Nutritional needs differ to some extent over the various periods of life. Women of reproductive age have additional needs due to menstruation and, of course, during pregnancy and lactation. Infants and children have greater needs per unit of weight than adults, mainly because they are growing.
Older people are also a vulnerable group; are exposed to a higher risk of malnutrition than young adults. Pregnancy nutrition’s are also important.
Certain deficiency diseases are prevalent in specific groups of the population. This chapter addresses the different energy needs of people at various stages of the life cycle.
Humans get energy from the food and liquids they consume. The nutrient requirement of women of reproductive age (especially during pregnancy and lactation), young children and adolescents, and older people are different from those of males between the ages of 15 and 60; therefore, not everyone needs the same amount of food.
WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE:
Women of reproductive age have more nutritional needs especially pregnancy nutrition than adult males. One reason is that blood loss during menstruation leads to regular loss of iron and other nutrients and causes women to have more propensity than men to anemia (see Chapter 13). In addition, women work much harder in many developing countries than men.
In rural areas, they are usually very engaged in agriculture, and in urban areas, they work long hours in factories and other places; when they return home, from the countryside or from the factory, they still have a lot of work to do at home, including preparing food and caring for children. Often the heavy burden of collecting water and fuel rests with women. All this work increases the needs of nutritional energy and other nutrients.
The nutritional status of the woman, before, during and after pregnancy, pregnancy nutrition contributes to her own general well-being, but also to that of her children and other family members. The field of maternal nutrition focuses attention on women as mothers. It often focuses on their nutritional status mainly as it relates to the well-being of the children they engender and their ability to breastfeed, nurture and care for them.
The health and well-being of the mother as such have been relatively neglected. Thus, the field of maternal and child health emphasizes the child and the provision of services and care for women so that she can have successful pregnancies and lactations, also in the interests of the child, without worrying too much about the mother.
The dual role of women as productive mothers and workers is affected by poor diets and poor health, and not only their own well-being but that of the whole family. Excessive workload can bring low-food women to the brink of malnutrition. what do pregnant women need? what’s good in pregnancy?
During pregnancy there are a number of physiological changes that force greater attention to nutrition in pregnancy. There are recommendations on nutritional requirements to meet the needs of the fetus, the maternal organism and the cost of milk synthesis at this stage. Healthy eating during pregnancy.
The maternal organism can adapt to these circumstances by modifying the nutrient utilization capacity. Therefore, healthy women with adequate nutritional status before pregnancy could develop their gestation without needing extra supply of nutrients.
The goal of this small nutrition guide in pregnancy is to get the mother-to-be to learn what nutrients are indispensable for her baby’s healthy development.
Medical control of the pregnant woman:
When a woman is aware that she is pregnant, she should see a doctor, who will monitor changes in your physique and weight. To do this, it will carry out:
More than forty nutrients work in the formation, development and growth of the baby, so eating takes a critical role in coping with pregnancy in a healthy way.
- The mother seeks to adapt to pregnancy. Stage of nausea, vomiting, hypotension, etc. Little weight gain.
- The embryo begins to develop the organs.
- The mother experiences a period of adaptation to pregnancy. balance. Weight gain.
- The fetus is in the period of organ growth and development.
- The mother is in the phase of preparation for childbirth, with an obvious weight gain.
- The baby grows at a rate that won’t happen again during his or her life.
It is important to note that there is no diet for all pregnant women, as each organism has its particularities, and will depend on their health status.
Abortions, losses and stillbirths are certainly more common in poorly nourished women than in those with good nutrition. Dietary deficiencies may also increase the risk of fetal malformations. Acute malnutrition reduces fertility and therefore the likelihood of conception.
A woman with severe malnutrition stops menstruating. This is clearly a natural device to stop the loss of nutrients in menstrual flow and to protect women from the rigors of pregnancy and childbirth.
However, the lack of fertility in less severely malnourished women is not evident. Moderately malnourished women are mostly in Asia and parts of Africa.